Vocational Training Institutute ECOSOLAR

Институција за стручна обука  ЕКОСОЛАР




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Solar energy



Short inf. about Solar energy in Rep. of. North Macedonia

Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible, free and renewable energy source, which does not pollute the environment. However, there are two main disadvantages: it has a low density of energy flux and is erratic.
The sun is the main source of energy from solar radiation. The outer layer of the Sun radiates tremendous energy into space. The flux density of solar radiation on the surface of the Sun is 63 MW / m2, and measured on the outer side of the Earth's atmosphere, on a surface normal to the sun's rays, it changes (because the Earth's orbit is elliptical) and is from 1308 to 1389 W / m2.
The average current density is 1353 W / m2 and is called the solar constant.
It has been determined that 1 m2 horizontal surface of the Earth in summer at noon, receives a maximum of about 1000 W of solar energy. Therefore, through the atmosphere, due to reflection and absorption, the intensity of solar radiation decreases by about 400 W.
The intensity of the sun's radiation on the Earth's surface depends on the duration of the Sun's illumination during the day and the angle of the sun's rays to the horizontal plane. Both sizes, for a specific place on Earth, are very variable, not only during the year, the time of year and the month, but also during the day.
Two components of solar radiation arrive on the Earth's surface:
- one that comes directly from the Sun and is called direct solar radiation, and
- the second which occurs by the scattering of direct solar radiation in the atmosphere and is called indirect, or diffuse solar radiation.
Due to the large number of cloudy and foggy days in the winter period, most of the solar radiation on the Earth's surface arrives in the form of diffuse radiation. But diffuse solar radiation is always present in the atmosphere, even on the clearest days. This diffuse solar radiation sometimes reaches up to 10% of the direct solar radiation.


The Republic of Macedonia is an area in which, according to previous measurements, the intensity of solar radiation is favorable for obtaining energy.
Global solar radiation in R. Macedonia is maximally in the southwestern mountainous region and its maximum annual value is around 1500 kWh / m2.





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